Volume 5, Number 9 01 September Reportage Italian Triangle of death linked to waste crisis Kathryn Senior and Alfredo Mazza The environmental waste problem in southern Italy is now reaching epic proportions and the problem has been linked to increasing rates of cancer. At the end of June,protestors blocked the rail links between northern and southern Aggressive prostate cancer survivor stories, complaining about the re-opening of a previously condemned rubbish dump.
The dump was brought back into service after household waste built up in the streets of the Campania region, causing schools to close because of the public-health risks.
The region around Salerno and Naples produces more rubbish than the landfills and incinerators in the region can cope with, and organised crime in Italy has been taking advantage and turning illegal waste dumping into a lucrative business for years.
Kathryn Senior and Alfredo Mazza explore the possible effect on cancer mortality in the region around the town of Nola. Over the past few years, the processing of industrial and urban waste has become an environmental and political issue for Italy.
Recycling and disposal of waste in a safe, cost-effective way has become almost impossible.
The constant increase in the amount of waste, both organic and toxic, places a great burden on ageing waste-processing plants. Many minor processing facilities designed to handle waste from small urban communities have been overwhelmed by the surplus waste they receive from other regions even less able to cope.
Neonatal brain damage Abstract A specialized neurogenic niche along the ventricles accumulates millions of progenitor cells in the developing brain. After mitosis, fate-committed daughter cells delaminate from this germinative zone. Considering the high number of cell divisions and delaminations taking place during embryonic development, brain malformations caused by ectopic proliferation of misplaced progenitor cells are relatively rare. Here, we report that a process we term developmental anoikis distinguishes the pathological detachment of progenitor cells from the normal delamination of daughter neuroblasts in the developing mouse neocortex.
The need to dispose of waste has, for at least the past 20 years, given organised crime in the area the opportunity to take advantage and to dump waste illegally for profit. Many landfills today are working at full potential and cannot process the waste they receive according to environmental regulations.
Because of this emergency, local and regional administrations have allocated financial resources for recycling programmes and for construction of new, technologically advanced waste-processing facilities. These funds, however, have also given criminal organisations new opportunities for fraud and illegal exploitation.
The situation has come to the attention of the European Commission, which, in July this year, sent out warning letters to Italy about 28 cases of breaches of the European Union's environmental laws.
The illegal or uncontrolled landfill sites in Italy drew particular criticism; Italy has already been warned twice for flouting the Hazardous Waste Directive and the Landfill Directive, and the EU has now referred Italy to the European Court of Justice for further action.
Recognising the extent of the waste problem and trying to enforce legislation and curb the activities of the ecomafia in a bid to protect inhabitants of affected areas is only part of the story.
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Few studies have been done on the effect of waste treatment on human health, and assessing the health effect generally and the effect on cancer incidence and mortality is likely to be a difficult task.
In the s, Goldberg and colleagues Montreal, Canada suggested that men living near a municipal solid-waste landfill site in Montreal were at a higher risk of developing cancer of the liver, kidney, pancreas, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Comba and colleagues 3 reported that residence within a 2-km radius of an industrial waste incinerator in Mantua, Italy, was associated with a significant increase in risk of soft-tissue sarcomas.
The evidence suggested a causal role for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. In women, the results suggested a pollution-related risk, but in men, the results were confounded by occupational exposure and a greater tendency to smoke.
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This was nested within the large European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition EPIC a study of more than people in ten European countriesdevised to investigate the relation between diet, metabolic and genetic factors, and cancer.
Studies done in Florence, Pisa, Milan, Rome, Torino, and other locations have suggested an association between air pollution and children's respiratory conditions. In Italy, specific landfill sites have been investigated, related to industrial activities, in particular in Caffaro, Brescia and Montedison, Mestre, but research is only partially published or unpublished.
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Thorough epidemiological studies on the possible associations between teratogenesis and waste pollutants are needed urgently so that the findings can be used to define safe regulations that should be instated for contaminating landfills, he adds. The report of the Registry of Tumours in February,showed that mortality for colorectal and liver cancer, and leukaemia and lymphoma, were higher in District 73 than in the rest of the ASL NA4 health region see table.
This district is in the eastern region of Campania, which has one of the worst records of illegal environmental activity in Italy, largely due to the Camorra, the indigenous mafia.
Ideiglenesen le vagy tiltva
The region, which has become known as the Triangle of death, has its three points at the three towns of Nola, Marigliano, and Acerra see figure. All three used to be important agricultural centres but this part of Campania has been used for illegal waste dumping by the ecomafia for so long that the land is 16 éves prostatitis esetén practically unuseable.
Data from aggressive prostate cancer survivor stories Italian forestry department gives the total amount of waste in the region as m3 but, in reality, Mazza thinks that this is just the tip of the iceberg.
Pollutants in the air, water, and in produce from the area, are well above regulation levels, he points out.