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Prostate cancer symptoms and the PSA test
The proposed non-invasive blood test uses a combination of two techniques: surface-enhanced Raman scattering SERS and a new mathematical analysis technique called support vector machine SVM.
Together, these techniques produce an accuracy up to It is important to improve the survival of patients by early diagnosis and treatment. Currently, there are many diagnostic methods available—including B-mode ultrasound, CT scan, biopsy and histopathology assessment—but these techniques have various limitations.
For example, B-mode ultrasound only discerns the solid tumour and is therefore not applicable to patients in the early stages of cancer. Biopsy and histopathology assessment are the gold standard of cancer examination but they are invasive and impractical for high-risk patients with multiple suspicious lesions.
We hope to develop a rapid, non-destructive, optical diagnosis method to solve these problems. We selected the inVia because it offers continuous scanning from 50 to wavenumbers [using SynchroScan, Renishaw's patented method of acquiring wide-range spectra] and its high sensitivity makes it suitable for biological tissue measurement. It is also highly automated with software that is powerful and easy to use.
The differences in the spectra reveal the enormous potential to diagnose cancer using the serum SERS technique. The results show normalized mean SERS spectra of prostate cancer and normal serum sample.
The shaded area represents the standard deviations.